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  • come in 1993 The distorted geography on the number lines


    The distorted geography on the number lines of many pre-service primary teachers in this study also highlights the need to provide them with strong visual models of negative numbers and their ordering. The evidence from Indri\'s interview is that some standard models of negative numbers (e.g., lending and borrowing money) are unhelpful for ordering negative numbers. Distances measured in opposite directions from a central point is perhaps the most obvious visual model. Concrete materials, such as the linear arithmetic blocks (Department of Education, 2009, Stacey et al., 2001a, Steinle et al., 2006) were used very successfully in the larger study to represent positive decimals (Widjaja, 2008). These could readily be used for negative decimals, combining place value structure with both length and direction ‘east’ and ‘west’ of a fixed origin. It is also necessary to explicitly address the ‘paradox’ of the two different feasible orderings of negative numbers: the normal ordering and the potential ordering by absolute value which makes so much sense in everyday contexts. Stressing the negative part of the line as a reflection of the positive part should provide strong and helpful visual images. Understanding misconceptions is important because it come in 1993 provides clues for targeting instruction better to learners’ needs.
    Introduction Social software applications – such as wikis, weblogs, and social networking sites (SNS) – have recently attracted organizational researchers’ attention (e.g., Kane and Fichman, 2009, Kane et al., 2014a). The impressive growth of public social web sites, like Facebook and Twitter, has pressurized organizations to take their employees’ changing communication behavior into account (von Krogh, 2012) and to provide them with intra-organizational social software applications (Healey, 2012). Currently, organizations are increasingly adopting a diverse mix of organizational social software applications (Chan and Morgan, 2011, Chui et al., 2012, Haefliger et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2010, Kiron et al., 2013, Majchrzak et al., 2009), which we refer to collectively as enterprise social software platforms (ESSPs). Despite its impressive adoption growth, cervix is not clear whether or how ESSPs positively influence performance. Previous research has demonstrated that the link between information technology (IT) use and performance should not be taken for granted and can be influenced by complex factors. For example, IT will not have a positive performance impact if it goes unused (Devaraj and Kohli, 2003). Other research has suggested that the fit between task and technology is an important predictor of performance (Goodhue and Thompson, 1995). Different types of technologies may also have different types of outcomes (Kane and Alavi, 2007). The importance of the link between IT use and performance may be particularly salient for ESSPs, since many IT managers are also skeptical about ESSPs’ benefit for employees and cannot truly justify their adoption (McAfee, 2009b). In addition, ESSPs can also be applied to a number of different types of tasks (Kane et al., 2014a), making the questions of task and environmental fit more complex. Organizations should therefore first develop a solid understanding of a technology’s potential business benefits before adopting it or advocating its use (Denyer et al., 2011). This study’s research question therefore is: How and under what conditions does ESSP use lead to performance benefits for employees? More specifically, our research objectives are (1) to empirically validate a positive relationship between ESSP use and individual employee performance, (2) to investigate how employees’ task equivocality (i.e. task non-routineness) moderates the relationships between the two, and (3) to determine whether different types of use (i.e. intra-team vs. inter-team use) have differential effects on individual employee performance (i.e. task performance vs. innovative performance). We study the relationship between ESSP use and the individual employee performance by means of a survey among 491 employees of an international media company headquartered in the UK. The company’s ESSP had been in place for four years, with an adoption rate of more than 75% at the time of data collection (April/May 2013).