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  • It is of interest to point out that curcumin in


    It is of interest to point out that curcumin in this study reduced body weight gain; the underlying mechanism may be due to a decrease in general Cinchonidine of fat, which was associated with a significantly reduced NPC1L1 expression in small intestine. Labonte et al revealed that NPC1L1 deficiency or ezetimibe treatment significantly reduced intestinal absorption of total fat and saturated fatty acids as well as prevented high-fat diet–induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice [44]. In a small clinical study of 38 people, Yagi et al observed that ezetimibe treatment for 5 weeks significantly reduced body weight gain and body mass index [45]. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that curcumin reduces cholesterol absorption in the small intestine, lowers plasma cholesterol levels, decreases cholesterol accumulation in the aortas, and inhibits the formation of early atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE−/− mice. Whether curcumin through inhibiting cholesterol absorption exerts an antiatherogenic effect in humans needs to be further investigated.
    Acknowledgment This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81402674), the Young Teachers' Training Project of Sun Yat-sen University (16ykpy11) and the Guangdong Medical Science and Technology Research Fund Project (A2018482). We thank Ruidong Duan in Lund University, Sweden, for the technical assistance and for the valuable suggestions. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
    Introduction The rising prevalence of morbid obesity [1] bolstered the demand for bariatric or “metabolic” surgery which seems to be more effective than conventional therapies. Each bariatric surgery procedure, besides improving lipid profile [2], [3], can impact differently on non-cholesterol sterols, currently used to estimate cholesterol synthesis and absorption and also useful markers of lipid absorption. Gastric banding reduces cholesterol synthesis and increases cholesterol absorption [4]; the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass decreases cholesterol synthesis and absorption [4]; after biliopancreatic diversion, cholesterol absorption drops while cholesterol synthesis rises [3]. To our knowledge no studies have, as yet, evaluated cholesterol synthesis/absorption patterns Cinchonidine after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). LSG provides significant weight loss, similar early changes in gastrointestinal hormones as mixed-type procedures and marked improvements in, or remission of, co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus [5], [6]. Sleeve gastrectomy is also effective in reducing the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was well documented by Péquignot et al. [7].
    Subjects, materials and methods Plasma lathosterol, campesterol and sitosterol levels were measured by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) with multiple selected ion monitoring according to Ahmida et al. [8]. Non-cholesterol sterols were standardised and expressed as cholesterol ratios (102μmol/mmol cholesterol). Before surgery and 10 months afterwards, a questionnaire on dietary history was administered to 15/42 patients with obesity in order to quantify ingested calories (Kcal), carbohydrates (g/die), proteins (g/die), saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fats (g/die) and daily cholesterol (mg/die). Visceral fat area was measured by ultrasonography as described by Hirooka et al. [9]. All the assessments well carried by the same operator and the intra-operator inter-day coefficient of variation was 1.8%. We used Student’s t test and the Mann–Whitney U test to compare parametric and non-parametric variables between subjects with obesity and controls. For comparing pre- and post-surgery parametric and non-parametric variables we used the paired t-test and Wilcoxon test. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients tested the relation between the variables. Analyses were performed with SPSS software (version 17.0; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL), with statistical significance set at p<0.05.